Monday, June 1, 2015

It Was 50 Years Ago Today

The Orchard Keeper was published on June 1, 1965. It was McCarthy's first novel, and first work published under the name "Cormac". Up until then, McCarthy had published only two short stories in a college magazine under the name "Charles Jr.". The short stories were rather mediocre and destined the author for obscurity. All the more surprising then that his follow-up work five years later, nothing published in between, would be such a masterpiece.

Have I lapsed in my posting? Hahaha, it's been too long a stretch, even for a procrastinator like me!

Saturday, February 25, 2012

The Empire Builder by Cormac McCarthy

Oh, has it been almost a year since my last post? I am a true procrastinator! So I "hurry" back to post this spec script of The Empire Builder, a sequel to The Sunset Limited, which should be of intense interest to McCarthy readers. I received it in a spam email. Or, it came to me in a dream; I no longer remember which. The words were there waiting, and I only transcribed them and attached my name to the authorship, hahaha!:

A novel in dramatic form
by Cormac McCarthy

[SCENE: A moving NYC subway train, late at night. Car empty except for White. Black enters from a door between cars, sits across from White.]

WHITE: You can't walk between cars while the train is in motion. Or even when it's not. That's a new law.

BLACK: Have me arrested, professor, and how are you?

WHITE: How indeed. Yourself?

BLACK: Same ol'.

WHITE: You ride this train normally?

BLACK: Normally, and abnormally. I go to work, I go home. This train, the Empire Builder.

WHITE: The first time I've run into you on the Empire Builder. Don't you dwell on that other line, you know, where you get to play angel?

BLACK: I mix things up a little sometimes to make life more interesting. Get to experience something different. Spies do it all the time for security purposes. This is New York, so you always think of alternative ways to get around, just in case. There's always more than one road from here to there, right, professor?

WHITE: Just askin'. Not aiming for an interrogation. Don't need a thorough analysis, a doctoral thesis.

BLACK: So I pass your class? Get an A?

WHITE: Long day at work?

BLACK: We slaves make our best effort to make the master happy while he builds his empire.

WHITE: Your self-victimization is showing. It's excessive and misguided and counterproductive, not to mention unattractive.

BLACK: So you've resigned yourself to your chains?

WHITE: What chains? I don't see any. And who is this master of yours, and what empire is he building?

BLACK: Just because you don't see something doesn't mean it doesn't exist. We are all slaves, each of us doing our part in the grander scheme. Whether we like it or not, whether we know it or not. The master's plan we don't get to see. We wouldn't understand it even if it was in front of our eyes, and we're staring right at it.

WHITE: Faith has no place in my universe. Only the physical is real. Subatomic particles, quarks, superstrings, dark matter, dark energy, ten dimensions or eleven, manual typewriters. Much of this multiverse we don't even know the characteristics of, what rules things abide by. We're not even able to see most of these things. But as you so wisely said, just because you don't see something doesn't mean it doesn't exist.

BLACK: That sure is deep, professor, too deep for me to understand. Now I recall you from last we met. You deserve a Nobel Prize just for being able to repeat these things so effortlessly. But what's the difference between your world and mine? Seems to me the ignorance is even all around. The only difference being the arrogance in the way we behold that ignorance. Exhibit it for other people to see. Get them to praise us for our magificent performance and superior intelligence.

WHITE: I suppose there are smarter people studying these things at places like Harvard and MIT. Or those geniuses at SFI. This religion of yours with the harsh punishing God, doesn't it have a history of ignorance and arrogance? Its own exhibition of magnificence and superiority? Hypocrisy.

BLACK: You have a point there. You made it perfectly clear with the exclamation point I distinctly hear at the end of your last sentence.

WHITE: The exclamation point has no place in literature. And literature is all tragedy. Embrace the nothingness, that's all there is.

BLACK: Coming to a station. I'm getting off this stop.

WHITE: But this isn't our stop yet. Don't go out there. You know what's out there.

[Train door opens. Black steps out.]

WHITE: [Yelling out the door] I'll be here tomorrow. I'll see you here tomorrow, here on the Empire Builder. I'll be waiting on the 1:17. Okay? Okay?

[FADE to strains of something from Miles Davis's "Kind Of Blue" or John Coltrane's "Blue Train".]

©2012 by callme_ken(AT)

Thursday, March 31, 2011

Daniel Woodrell, Writer

As I said once, if a website doesn't get updated for more than a month, nobody makes too much of it, but when a weblog doesn't get updated in a month, people begin to wonder whether it's been abandoned or that the blogger is dead! Not an ideal medium for deadline-resistant procrastinators such as myself. So I will now log an off-topic post, to prove I am still alive and I still have this blog in mind, and also to take the opportunity to remark on another writer I'm a fan of, Daniel Woodrell.

Not (yet) as well-known as Cormac McCarthy, Daniel Woodrell has to date published eight novels since his first in 1986:
Under the Bright Lights (1986)
Woe to Live On (1987)
Muscle for the Wing (1988)
The Ones You Do (1992)
Give Us a Kiss: A Country Noir (1996)
Tomato Red (1998)
The Death of Sweet Mister (2001)
Winter's Bone (2006)
The first five novels are currently out-of-print. Fortunately, with the critical and popular success of the movie of Winter's Bone last year, three of the first four novels will be republished in a few weeks as a set titled "The Bayou Trilogy", which includes Under the Bright Lights, Muscle for the Wing, and The Ones You Do, all set in Cajun/bayou country Louisiana (the most recent four novels are set in Ozark country Missouri, Woodrell's native state). Woodrell's "rediscovery" could be comparable to McCarthy's "rediscovery" in 1992, when, after All the Pretty Horses became a critical hit and bestseller, McCarthy's out-of-print early novels got republished.

Winter's Bone is not the first Woodrell novel to be turned into a motion picture. In 1999, Ang Lee turned Woe to Live On into the movie Ride With the Devil. The novel has a historical setting of the American Civil War, in the Missouri-Kansas border area, where there was extreme violence between the pro-Confederate Bushwackers and the pro-Union Jayhawkers. William Clarke Quantrill, who led the Bushwackers, is a character in the novel and movie. The movie was a box office dud, though there might have been some critical praise at the time, and the movie has continued to fail to develop a following on DVD. Even the issuance of a Criterion director's cut remastered edition of the movie late last year did little to raise the movie's profile, but I am not surprised. Ride With the Devil is a typical big-budget star-studded Hollywood trash, whereas Winter's Bone, a low-budget independent film with low-profile names in writing, directing, and acting, truly brings out the Greek tragedy of the story to great effect, and ranks among the best American movies of recent years.

Winter's Bone the movie should be recognized: Debra Granik for directing; Debra Granik and Anne Rosellini for adapting the screenplay; for acting, Jennifer Lawrence (Ree) and Dale Dickey (Merab) and John Hawkes (Teardrop); Dickon Hinchliffe for original music, especially for the instrumental piece "Hardscrabble Elegy"; Marideth Sisco for singing many of the songs, some traditional and others written specifically for the movie. This movie has a soundtrack that rivals that of Oh Brother, Where Art Thou? from a decade earlier. And movies made from McCarthy novels should be this great!

Besides "The Bayou Trilogy", to be released on April 28, Woodrell also plans a collection of short stories The Outlaw Album to be released on October 5. I don't know what the contents are specifically, and it might or might not include some short stories that are available variously on the internet, including these three:

A Hell of a Woman: An Anthology of Female Noir (2007), edited by Megan Abbott, is a collection of short stories by different authors, including one by Woodrell (282-287), which is available in its entirety in this anthology excerpt:
"Uncle" by Daniel Woodrell [pdf]

From the April 2009 issue of Esquire:
"Night Stand" by Daniel Woodrell [html]

From the December 2010 issue of Esquire:
"Twin Forks" by Daniel Woodrell [pdf]

Esquire seems to have a fondness for Woodrell! Besides the two short stories in Esquire, in the September 2007 issue, on the "Esquire 100" list, Woodrell is ranked number 63:
Daniel Woodrell: The Voice of the Ozarks
And accompanying the short story in the December 2010 issue of Esquire is this profile:
Daniel Woodrell: Writer: The most overlooked great novelist in America is about to enter your life

February 27, 2011 Woodrell interview in The Wall Street Journal:
Author Daniel Woodrell on 'Winter's Bone,' Attending the Oscars and His Next Book
March 2, 2011 follow-up Woodrell interview in The Wall Street Journal:
'Winter's Bone' Author Daniel Woodrell on Mixing the 'Verve and Vivacity' of Pulp with Family Stories

Yes, Daniel Woodrell is a writer to watch, if you have not already have his name on your watchlist!

Friday, February 4, 2011

Freemasonry In Background History to Blood Meridian

Masonic America

Some historical themes of Blood Meridian are the 19th C. Indian wars, manifest destiny and westward expansion, and Texas history. The child was born in 1833 when Andrew Jackson was president (1829-1837), and left home in 1847 when James Polk was president (1845-1849), and much of the kid's story takes place in 1849, the last year of Polk's presidency.

Andrew Jackson had a prominent role in the Indian Wars. In 1830, he signed into law the Indian Removal Act. As a result, large numbers of Indians died from starvation and disease, culminating in the notorious Cherokee Trail of Tears in 1838. Jackson frequently made referred negatively to the Indians in his annual addresses to Congress. In the 1833 address, Jackson said, "[the Southern tribes] have neither the intelligence, the industry, the moral habits, nor the desire of improvement which are essential to any favorable change in their condition. Established in the midst of another and a superior race, and without appreciating the causes of their inferiority or seeking to control them, they must necessarily yield to the force of circumstances and ere long disappear."

James K. Polk was credited with the annexation of Texas, as well as the acquisitions of New Mexico and California. "Manifest destiny" was coined by journalist John O'Sullivan in 1845 (who hinted at it in 1839) in an article about the annexation of Texas.

Both Jackson and Polk, like McCarthy, were transplants to Tennessee, but regarded as Tennesseeans. Like McCarthy, Polk subsequently moved to Texas. Most important here, both Jackson and Polk were Masons. Thus it could be argued that freemasonry greatly influenced the historical background to Blood Meridian.

Masonic Texas

Under the entry of "Freemasonry" in the Handbook of Texas Online:

In December 1837 delegates from these three lodges [Houston, Nacogdoches, San Augustine] convened at Houston to organize the Grand Lodge of the Republic of Texas. President Sam Houston presided over this meeting.... Between 1838 and 1845 the Texas Grand Lodge issued charters to twenty-one more lodges, and membership increased from seventy-three to 357. In addition, there were probably some 1,100 Masons from other jurisdictions living in Texas at this time. Although constituting only 1.5 percent of the population, Masons filled some 80 percent of the republic's higher offices. All of the presidents, vice presidents, and secretaries of state were Masons. After annexation Masons continued to be equally prominent in the state government, and between 1846 and 1861 five of the six governors were members of the fraternity.

In a footnote under the entry of "Star" in Mackey's Lexicon of Freemasonry:

At a celebration of the Festival of St. John the Baptiste, in 1844, at Portland, Maine, ... a member of the Grand Lodge of Texas ... observed, "Texas is emphatically a masonic country; all our Presidents and Vice-Presidents, and four-fifths of our State officers, were and are Masons: our national emblem, the 'Lone Star' -- was chosen from among the emblems selected by Freemasonry, to illustrate the moral virtues -- it is a five-pointed star, and alludes to the five points of fellowship."
(Albert Gallatin Mackey's Lexicon of Freemasonry was first published 1845, so this quote from 1844 would have been recent to him.)

Masonic Griffin

Fort Griffin was established in 1867 and closed in 1881, but in its mere 14 years of existence it had a great impact on the lore of the West. Fort Griffin was located by the Clear Fork of the Brazos River, mentioned in Blood Meridian, where the man passes through on his way to Griffin. The area around Fort Griffin was known as The Flat, a name not used in Blood Meridian, but was also called Griffin. Coming from the Clear Fork, the man would enter Griffin on Griffin Avenue, the town's main street and a path that would lead to Fort Griffin. He would first cross River Street, then First Street, then stop at the corner of Second Street, the location of the Beehive Saloon. [The "Fort Griffin" links on the "McCarthy Links" page contain street-level maps of Griffin.]

The Flat had a notorious reputation, populated with prostitutes and gamblers, lawmen and outlaws, buffalo hunters and later buffalo bone hunters. Pat Garrett hunted buffalo at Griffin, as did John Poe (years later and elsewhere, Garrett with Poe's help shot Billy the Kid). Lottie Deno (prototype for Miss Kitty on TV's "Gunsmoke", according to the Handbook of Texas) dealt cards at the Beehive. Doc Holliday among others had gambled with Deno. Doc Holliday too dealt cards at the Beehive as well as at Dick Shannessy's Saloon. It was in Griffin that Doc Holliday met his lifelong companion Bignose Kate Elder and befriended Wyatt Earp and family (resulting in the Gunfight at OK Corral with the Clantons years later). Other notables who spent time in Griffin included Bat Masterson and John Wesley Hardin.

Among the hunter-traders, Charles Rath and Frank Conrad relocated to Griffin Avenue their store, which traded mainly in buffalo and then in buffalo bones, which was usable as fertilizer, when the buffalo population was depleted. This must have been shortly after they opened the store, as 1878 was the year the southern herd was exterminated, and, according to the Handbook of Texas, some bone pickers amassed huge piles of bones by working ahead of workers laying railroad tracks. In Blood Meridian, the man reaches Griffin in 1878, and then in the "Epilogue" there are bone seekers and gatherers.

1878 also has another significance for Griffin. From the Beehive further along Griffin Avenue from Second Street to Third Street then Fourth Street, down another block to Conrad & Rath then a turn toward the river at Fourth Street, passing Shannessy's Saloon, stood a structure not mentioned in Blood Meridian: the first and only Masonic Lodge in Griffin, established in 1878. It is one of the last, if not the only remaining, structure still standing today in Griffin, whereas there are only footprint remains of Conrad & Rath, Shannessy's Saloon, and The Beehive Saloon.

Thursday, February 3, 2011

Freemasonry and Death/Rebirth in Blood Meridian

In my last post, I wrote that the Masonic symbolism in the last part of chapter 22 coincides with the occasion of one of the protagonist's several death/rebirth scenes in Blood Meridian, i.e., when the protagonist actually is born or dies, or when the "child" dies in order for the "kid" to be born in the first pages of chapter 1, or when the "kid" dies in order for the "man" to be born in the last part of chapter 22. But Masonic language and symbolism surround also the other occasions. Hence Masonic symbolism could be taken as a sign of his death/rebirth scenes in Blood Meridian.

Masonic "Coffin"

In "Cormac McCarthy Crosses the Great Divide"(2004), Don Williams writes that McCarthy used to live in "a modest house on El Paso's Coffin Street. He could scarcely have chosen a street with a name better suited to his early reputation, and there are those who believe it was a calculated choice ..." This is an indication that McCarthy regards symbolism as significant, in his life as well as in his art. Those whom Williams refers to might readily believe the coffin is a sign of McCarthy's "nihilistic visions", a term Williams uses later in the article, but there is also a Masonic sense of "coffin" that has a resonance in Blood Meridian.

Under the entry for "Coffin" in Mackey's Lexicon of Freemasonry:
Coffin. In the ancient mysteries, the aspirants could not claim a participation in the highest secrets until he had been placed in the Pastos, Bed or Coffin. The placing him in the coffin was called the symbolic death of the mysteries, and his deliverance was termed a raising from the dead. Hence arose a peculiarity in the Greek verb teleutao, which, in the active voice, signified "I die", and in the middle voice, "I am initiated." ancient writer: "... teleutan is to die, and teleisthai to be initiated." The coffin in masonry is an emblem of the Master's degree....
It is interesting that the Greek verb "teleutao" is used to mean one thing as well as its opposite: "to die" as well as "to be initiated", which is synonymous with "to be born", and the Masonic use of this term is compatible with the notion that every death necessarily entails a rebirth, a theme of Blood Meridian.

Traditional Freemasonry, or the Ancient Craft Masonry, has three degrees, consisting of:
first degree - Entered Apprentice;
second degree - Fellow-Craft;
and, third degree - Master Mason.
The notion of death/rebirth in going from one degree to the next allows the correspondence of Blood Meridian's protagonist's three identities with traditional Masonry's three degrees:
child = entered apprentice;
kid = fellow-craftsman;
and, man = master mason.
Freemasonry later added higher degrees, to a total of 33; both 3 and 33 are significant numbers in Blood Meridian.

Masonic "Seeing" And "Recognizing"

Under the entry for "Seeing" in Mackey's Lexicon of Freemasonry ,
Illuminated by its divine rays, the Freemason sees where others are blind; and that which to the profane is but the darkness of ignorance, is to the initiated filled with the light of knowledge and understanding.

Blood Meridian begins with the backstory of the protagonist's birth in "the night the stars fell", which are the "illuminated" "divine rays", as the father "looked in the blackness", which is the "darkness of ignorance". "See the child", the narrator's imperative that starts the novel, takes on the Masonic meaning, "Regard the protagonist as an entered apprentice Mason".

Under the entry for "Recognition, Modes of": Recognizing means presenting some kind of secret test, unknown to the uninitiated, in order to distinguish a Mason from a non-Mason. But there is an alternate sense of "recognizing". The language for rejection of a candidate for a higher degree contains this other sense. Under the entry for "Vouching":

[The] decree [of rejection is to] be uttered in general terms, such as, "I am not satisfied," or "I do not recognize you," and not in more specific language, such as, "You did not answer this inquire ," or "You are ignorant on that point."
In other words, "I do not recognize you" means "I reject your candidacy to the next degree of Masonry". Consider these senses of "seeing" and "recognizing" and note the repetitions of "see" and "recognize", the act of not answering the inquiry, and the echoed wordings in "ignorant"/"ignored" and "point"/"disappointment", in the scene in Griffin when Holden and the man meet (BM 328):

Was it always your idea, he said, that if you did not speak you would not be recognized? You seen me. The judge ignored this. I recognized you when I first saw you and yet you were a disappointment to me. Then and now.

The scene could be read in this Masonic way: Holden asks the kid who has just turned man, the fellow craftsman who has just turned master mason, whether he thinks he could be initiated into a higher Masonic degree if he does not satisfactorily answer the inquiry. The man responds brusquely that since Holden already has an illumined understanding of him, he needs to say nothing more. Holden, offended, responds to the man's obstinacy by reminding him that when he first met him in Nacogdoches as a child who had just turned kid, the entered apprentice who had just turned fellow craftsman, Holden initiated him in spite of his reservations at the time. Now, Holden once again has reservations, except that this time the man has shown disrespect, which is unacceptable to Holden.

Masonic "Beehive"

The man meets his physical death (implied) in the jakes of the Beehive. McCarthy uses the beehive to draw an analogy between the mindlessness of the individual dancer to the communal dance and the mindlessness of the individual drone bee to the swarm. But "beehive" also has a Masonic sense. Under the entry for "Beehive" in Mackey's Lexicon of Freemasonry:

Beehive. An emblem of industry appropriated to the third degree [of Freemasonry]. This is a virtue ever held in high esteem among the craft.... There seems, however, to be a more recondite meaning connected with this symbol. The ark [as in Noah's ark, not the Ark of the Covenant] has already been shown to have been an emblem of regeneration -- of the second birth from death to life. Now in the mysteries a hive was a type of the ark. "Hence," says Faber [in his Origin of Pagan Idolatry, according to the footnotes], "both the diluvian priestesses and the regenerated souls were called bees,..."
The protagonist is in his third identity as the man, and the beehive is an emblem of the third degree of Masonry.

Revelation's Tetramorph At the Death/Rebirth Scenes

As I wrote in a past post, Freemasonry absorbed the Judeo-Christian tradition, and Revelation's tetramorph, with the faces of lion/eagle/bull/man, is present at the death/rebirth scene in chapter 22, and it is present also in the other death/rebirth scenes.

In the beginning of chapter 1, as the child would soon die to give birth to the kid, the backstory of his birth is told: The protagonist was born under the sign of Scorpio during the Leonid showers. Scorpio is a scorpion but is frequently symbolized by an eagle (probably because the nearby eagle constellation Aquila represents the same sector of the sky), and the Leonids are so named because the meteors seemed to originate from the constellation Leo, the lion. Hence, here are the eagle and the lion, two of the faces of the tetramorph.

In the finale scene, McCarthy chooses to set it in Griffin. The mythological griffin is a combination of the lion and the eagle, again, two faces of the tetramorph.

McCarthy chose "Griffin" and "Beehive" for their resonances to Freemasonry, but Griffin was an actual town in Texas, and the Beehive, or Bee Hive, was an actual saloon in historic Griffin, so these choices also have a base in history. Freemasonry too has a basis in the historical background of Blood Meridian ... to be discussed in the next post.

And, Revelation's tetramorph is an iconic foursome which has equivalents in other systems of belief, including astrology, as shown above with Scorpio and Leo, but in other systems of belief as well ... to be discussed in future posts.

And, the Williams article I quoted at the beginning suggests that McCarthy uses elements of his personal life in his art, opening a biographical or autobiographical read of McCarthy's works ... also to be discussed in future posts.

Thursday, January 27, 2011

Blood Meridian's Chapter 22 - Masonic Symbolism

Blood Meridian's chapter 22, I have claimed, is neglected for its narrative and symbolic significances, specifically, the part after the hangings of Brown and Toadvine and before the eldress at the rocks at the end of the chapter, the part which begins with the two key sentences on page 313 I quoted at the end of the last post, with Revelation terms underscored to show that Revelation could account for quite a few words in this passage. Yet, there is an even bigger set of symbolism that would account for all of these same terms, because Revelation -- moreover, the Judeo-Christian tradition -- is absorbed into this tradition, a set of symbolism that could account for even more terms in this passage, and the tradition is Freemasonry.

I use as my main source here Albert Mackey's Lexicon of Freemasonry and Encyclopedia of Freemasonry because Mackey was a 33rd degree Mason who lived in the 19th C. and was considered an authoritative historian of 19th C. American Freemasonry; the Lexicon and the Encyclopedia were available as sources to McCarthy; and, as we shall see, Mackey's works make a good decoder for Blood Meridian's Chapter 22.

Under the Lexicon's entry "Banners":

General Standard of Freemasonry. ... The escutcheon, or shield on the banner, is divided into four compartments or quarters by a green cross, over which a narrower one of the same length of limb, and of a yellow colour, is placed, forming what the heralds call "a cross vert, voided or;" each of the compartments formed by the limbs of the cross is occupied by a different device. In the first quarter is placed a golden lion on a field of blue, to represent the standard of the tribe of Judah; in the second, a black ox on a field of gold, to represent Ephraim; in the third, a man on a field of gold to represent Reuben; and, in the fourth, a golden eagle on a blue ground, to represent Dan. Over all is placed, as the crest, an ark of the covenant, and the motto is, "Holiness to the Lord."

Then, under the Encyclopedia's entry "Ark of the Covenant": "Its covering was of pure gold, over which was placed two figures called cherubim, an order of exalted angelic beings, with expanded wings."

Then, under the Encyclopedia's entry "Cherubim": "But all agree in this, that they had wings, and that these wings were extended." Furthermore, the Encyclopedia indicates that the Assyro-Babylonians depicted Kirubi, or Cherubim, as vultures:

Kirubi after the Assyrian type, which formed a Merkabah, meaning a chariot (First Chronicles xxviii, 18), upon which Yahveh was seated. In the Egyptian monuments the gods are often represented between the forward-stretching wings of sparrow-hawks or vultures, placed face to face, and birds of this kind often enfold with their wings the divine Naos.

Now, I consolidate and restate in plainer language the descriptions of the general standard of Freemasonry. It is composed of an escutcheon divided into quadrants, each occupied by one of lion/eagle/bull/man. Above the escutcheon is an ark of the covenant, and surrounding the escutcheon and ark are two cherubim, one on each side. Artists have depicted the ark of the covenant and cherubim in many ways, but all we really know of how the ark looks is that it is entirely covered with gold, and all we really know of how cherubim look is that they have huge wingspans, often represented by vultures.

The coat-of-arms of the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE), a widely known Masonic organization whose coat-of-arms is a representative design, illustrates well Mackey's descriptions of the components:
[Image from UGLE website, webpage of The Arms of the United Grand Lodge of England]

Now we return to the Blood Meridian passage above to match two more phrases to Freemasonry: "vultures ... whose wingspan so dwarfed all lesser birds" would correspond to the cherubim with huge wingspans and often represented by vultures; and "piles of gold a hat would scarcely have covered" would correspond to the ark of the covenant entirely covered with gold.

The two-sentence passage from Blood Meridian, with the Masonic terms (which include also all the Revelation terms) underscored, now looks like this:

On that lonely coast where the steep rocks cradled a dark and muttersome sea he saw vultures at their soaring whose wingspan so dwarfed all lesser birds that the eagles shrieking underneath were more like terns or plovers. He saw piles of gold a hat would scarcely have covered wagered on the turn of a card and lost and he saw bears and lions turned loose in the pits to fight wild bulls to the death and he was twice in San Francisco and twice saw it burn and never went back, riding out on horseback along the road to the south where all night the shape of the city burned against the sky and burned again in the black waters of the sea where dolphins rolled through the flames, fire in the lake, through the fall of burning timbers and the cries of the lost.

Masonic symbols surround this scene. In the previous scene, the kid finds and carries a Bible to be used in the ark of the covenant in this scene, and in the next scene the kid has a brief stint as a guard for some pilgrims, an allusion to the Masonic lore that Freemasonry originated with the Knights Templar, who guarded pilgrims on the road as well as defended the Temple of Solomon, which in Masonic lore was built by Hiram Abif, the master mason and Freemasonry's honored first Mason.

The "bear" is the only entity in this passage not part of this set of Masonic symbols, as it belongs to a different, and significant, symbolism, to be discussed in future posts.

Masonic symbolism extends to the end of this chapter, when the kid dies and the man is born. It is already present at the beginning, both when the child is born and when the child dies and the kid is born, and it is present also at the end of chapter 23, when the man dies. Masonic symbolism seems to be a sign or a motif of the protagonist's death/rebirth scenes; moreover, those scenes could even be explained in Masonic terms. So, more Freemasonry to come....

Monday, January 24, 2011

Blood Meridian - Revelation's "Lake of Fire"

In a recent blogpost, I wrote that "fire in the lake" is an image from the I Ching, as translated by Wilhelm/Baynes. This two-sentence passage from BM p. 313 is where the expression (underscored here) is used:

On that lonely coast where the steep rocks cradled a dark and muttersome sea he saw vultures at their soaring whose wingspan so dwarfed all lesser birds that the eagles shrieking underneath were more like terns or plovers. He saw piles of gold a hat would scarcely have covered wagered on the turn of a card and lost and he saw bears and lions turned loose in the pits to fight wild bulls to the death and he was twice in San Francisco and twice saw it burn and never went back, riding out on horseback along the road to the south where all night the shape of the city burned against the sky and burned again in the black waters of the sea where dolphins rolled through the flames, fire in the lake, through the fall of burning timbers and the cries of the lost.

An expression similar to I Ching's "fire in the lake" is used several times in the Bible's Revelation: "lake of fire". Uncannily, the two expressions from unrelated sources express parallel, really identical, meanings, that apocalypse/death is not the end, but necessarily entails a resurrection/rebirth: A molting is the death of the old skin and the birth of a new one; an apocalypse is the death of the old world and the birth of a new one, and in the context of Christianity, it could be the death of Christ followed by his resurrection.

Earlier, the kid finds and keeps a Bible and is dressed like a preacher: "He had a bible that he'd found at the mining camps and he'd carried this book with him no word of which could he read. In his dark and frugal clothes some took him for a sort of preacher..." (BM 312) This action sets up a Biblical reading of the text quoted above, and it is a prelude to a Biblical vision the kid would soon have, as I will conjecture below. But first, some lines from Revelation.

In Revelation (KJV), "lake of fire", or a similar phrase, is used several times (underscored here) from Rev. 19 to 21:

Rev. 19:20 - And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone.

Rev. 20:10 - And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever.

Rev. 20:14-15 - And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death.
And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire.

Rev. 21:8 - But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death.

Revelation tells of a time of Christ's resurrection and Satan's downfall. The beast of the apocalypse, the tetramorph, one with "four faces", is described earlier in Revelation (KJV):

Rev. 4:7 - And the first beast was like a lion, and the second beast like a calf, and the third beast had a face as a man, and the fourth beast was like a flying eagle.

Note the descriptions of the four faces: "lion", "calf" (some translations use "ox", such as the English Standard Version, or "bull", such as the Contemporary English Version), "man", and "eagle". Now, let's return to the two-sentence passage in Blood Meridian quoted above which contains "fire in the lake", now with certain other words also underscored:

On that lonely coast where the steep rocks cradled a dark and muttersome sea he saw vultures at their soaring whose wingspan so dwarfed all lesser birds that the eagles shrieking underneath were more like terns or plovers. He saw piles of gold a hat would scarcely have covered wagered on the turn of a card and lost and he saw bears and lions turned loose in the pits to fight wild bulls to the death and he was twice in San Francisco and twice saw it burn and never went back, riding out on horseback along the road to the south where all night the shape of the city burned against the sky and burned again in the black waters of the sea where dolphins rolled through the flames, fire in the lake, through the fall of burning timbers and the cries of the lost.

All four faces of the tetramorph are present: "eagle", "lion", and "bull", and the "man" would be represented by the "kid", himself soon to become the "man". The image of "riding out on horseback" harkens Revelation's several rounds of an arriving "horseman"; the use of "twice" harkens Revelation's "first resurrection" and "second death"; and the images of "burned again in the black waters of the sea", all the "burning" and "flames" in general, and "cries of the lost" harken Revelation's apocalypse. And, Christ is sometimes symbolized by the "dolphin". Hence, in this scene, the kid has a vision of Revelation ("he saw ... and he saw"), though his illiteracy has prevented him from reading it in the Bible he keeps.

So, in addition to an I Ching reading of "fire in the lake", I have now also a Biblical reading, but wait ... is this it? No, there are additional senses, along the lines of Revelation, which are also present in this two-sentence passage, and further on in the same chapter, of a tradition that absorbs the precepts of Christianity as well as other traditions. But Freemasonry, and a Masonic reading of this same passage, will have to wait until a future post....